Tuesday, December 24, 2019

The Mormon Belief System - 1469 Words

The Mormon belief system has many different principles that are unique and set themselves apart from other world religions, one of which being their views on cosmology. The Mormon cosmology belief is the description of the physical and metaphysical universe. Their beliefs on the subject are deeply engrained in the religion’s basic faith; cosmology is related to the church’s views on divinity, extraterrestrial life, pre-mortal existence, and the afterlife. Mormon divinity revolves around the core beliefs in exaltation and eternal progression: the idea that mortals will be given an opportunity to have leading roles in other heavenly kingdoms, themselves. One of the key goals in Mormonism is to achieve exaltation through Jesus’s atonement; as a result they inherit godly attributes. Mormonism holds the belief that people who follow God’s example will become like gods in the afterlife, having â€Å"all power, glory, dominion, and knowledge† (LDS Church 2 27). This belief that people may one day become god-like figures in the afterlife leads to the assumption that Mormons believe in the existence of other worlds like the one that we live in, that exalted people would be able to rule over. The teachings of Mormonism also include that the exalted will live with their earthly families in the next life and â€Å"have spirit children† (LDS Church 11), continuing the growth of their families. According to the Mormonism belief, exaltation is obtained only by reaching the most high of the degreesShow MoreRelatedThe Islam And The Muslim Community1651 Words   |  7 Pagesthe lifetime of the Prophet Mohammed. Soon after his death, differences regarding leadership of the Muslim community instigated conflict. By the year 650 AD, the Islamic community had divided into two main branches, the Shia and the Sunnis. Similar beliefs and practices among both sects have allowed for their members to co-exist for centuries. However, differences in theology, law, and religious organizations have caused drastic conflict and competition among the two, dividing and tearing communitiesRead More Growth of Mormon Church Essay1710 Words   |  7 Pagesthis young boy declared that he had seen a vision, that he had been visited by both God, and His Son, Jesus Christ. This vision is a cornerstone of the Church that is known today as, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, nicknamed the â€Å"Mormons†, a religion that was built on the ideals of communal living and strict obedience to religious guidelines, a people that would be hunted by mobs, and that would eventually erect a â€Å"sanctuary† of 15,000 â€Å"saints† only 13 years after its foundation,Read MoreThe Common Ground Between Christianity And Mormonism1276 Words   |  6 Pagescounterpoint style where Craig L. Blomberg is bringing the point with an accusational tone from an Evangelical point of view, and Stephen E. Robinson the counterpoint with a defensive tone from a Mormon point of view. Blomberg pretty much stays with major areas of disagreement between Evangelicals and Mormons, but also gives a strong basis for Christian orthodoxy while Robinson tries to correct he disagreements, identify our similarities and blur the edges of difference between them. In the area ofRead MoreThe Church Of Jesus Christ1747 Words   |  7 PagesSaints: Mormon Lifestyle Amanda Laney Concepts Sept. 8th, 2016 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- Day Saints: Mormon Lifestyle The Mormon faith has been around since the 1800s starting in New York. The Mormon lifestyle is similar to ours but can differ in many ways from history, beliefs, marriage, diets, and branches of the religion and even care plans. Most people believe that the Mormons follow their founder Joseph Smith, but that is untrue. The Mormon faith wasRead MoreThe Mormon Church1710 Words   |  7 Pages My family, along with most of the other families in my neighborhood were young, White, middle class, highly educated, conservative, heterosexual, and Mormon with European ancestry. My father, along with most of the other fathers in the neighborhood, was a professor at Brigham Young University. Our culture was based on the teachings of the Mormon Church with a rich pioneer heritage which we celebrated every 24th of July. As children, we would don pioneer garb, decorate wagons and bikes to look likeRead MoreAbout the Mormons Essay814 Words   |  4 PagesAbout the Mormons The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (also called the Mormon church) was founded at Fayette, New York, on April 6, 1830, by Joseph Smith, Jr. Smith, the recipient of dreams and heavenly manifestations in the 1820s, dictated to scribes the translated text of a holy book he said had been engraved on gold plates by an American Indian historian about a.d. 400. The six-hundred-page Book of Mormon was published in the spring of 1830. TheRead MoreDiscuss the Differences Between Churches, Sects and Cults1207 Words   |  5 Pagesobvious North American example of a sect that evolved into a denomination is the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), the Mormons. Their founder, Joseph Smith, had a revelation from God that the ministry of Jesus Christ continued after his crucifixion, as described in what is now called the Book of Mormon. The Mormon sect has since evolved into the Mormon denomination of Christianity with the passage of time and the gathering of increasing numbers of followers. Within a few decades, itRead MoreCult Is A Cult Or Cult?904 Words   |  4 Pagesother social group with socially deviant and novel beliefs and practices. The Merriam-Webster’s definition is also similar: a small religious group that is not part of a larger and more accepted religion and that has beliefs regarded by many people as extreme or dangerous. A different definition that I had found for a cult and I think is a better explanation is: By its primary dictionary definition, the term cult just means a system of religious beliefs or rituals. It is based on a farming term in LatinRead MoreThe Prohibition Of Polygamy : An Essential Part Of Mormonism1502 Words   |  7 Pagesreligious norm. Other belief systems, such as Islam, accepted polygamy and was beginning to spread through the Middle East, North Africa, and Spain with the collapse of the Roman Empire. The acceptance of polygamy in other belief systems caused SIUM to become more specifically associated with Christianity. In 1830, Joseph Smith founded the religious movement Mormonism by, how his followers believe, translating another holy testament of the Christian God, the Book of Mormon, from golden plates revealedRead More Age Of Reform In America Essay1142 Words   |  5 PagesAmerica was growing larger, and with the expanding population, many new ideas sprang up. Conflicting opinions between the people of the United States caused the emergence of an Age of Reform, where people tried to change things such as the educational system and womenamp;#8217;s rights. These movements were the result of our nationamp;#8217;s self-determination and interest in improving the society we live in. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Between the 1820amp;#8217;s and 1860amp;#8217;s, Americans

Sunday, December 15, 2019

Changes in Immigration at Canada on 20th Century Free Essays

Immigration has had a strong effect on Canada’s historical development, from countryside in the early part of the 20th century to the building of Canada’s largest cities. Immigration itself has changed greatly during the 19th and 20th centuries and continues to do so. During the first sixty years of the 20th century, the majority of immigrants to Canada came either from Europe or the United States. We will write a custom essay sample on Changes in Immigration at Canada on 20th Century or any similar topic only for you Order Now This has since changed much with entry based on a points system and the introduction of human’s benefit. At present Canada is known as a country with a wide immigration policy which is reflected in Canada’s variety of races of mankind. According to the 2001 survey by  Statistics Canada, Canada has 34 national groups with at least one hundred thousand members each, of which 10 have over 1,000,000 people and numerous others represented in smaller amounts. 13. % of the population belonged to  visible minorities: most numerous among these are  Chinese  (3. 5% of the population),  South Asian  (3. 1%),  Black  (2. 2%), and  Filipino  (1. 0%). In 2004, Canada received 235,824 immigrants. The top ten sending countries, by state of origin, were Peoples Republic of China  (37,280),  India  (28,183),  Philippines  (13,900), Pakistan  (13,011),  Iran (6,491),  United States  (6,470),  Romania  (5,816),  United Kingdom (5,353), South Korea  (5,351), and  Colombia  (4,600).By 2006, the most numbered of immigrants coming to Canada originated in Asia, most especially in China and India. Immigration has been, and continues to be, a very important source of population growth in Canada. Given the ageing of the Canadian population and the gradual lessening birth rate, research shows that immigration could be the largest provider to population growth in the future.Therefore, it would not be amazing if Canada one day is the best country in the world economically, socially and culturally if immigration keeps on happening regularly. Combining different cultures in the world is a very big achievement because n ot many countries are successful in maintaining their cultural mixture and keeping peace at the same time is a tough challenge for any country. http://www. worldlingo. com/ma/enwiki/en/Immigration_to_Canada http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Immigration_to_Canada How to cite Changes in Immigration at Canada on 20th Century, Papers

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Charities free essay sample

The legal definition of charity has historically been somewhat elusive and stands distinct from any understanding of charity in a general or popular sense. As Lord Wright observed, in its legal sense the word â€Å"charitable is a word of art, of precise and technical meaning†[1]. Viscount Simmonds further remarked that, â€Å"no comprehensive definition of legal charity has been given either by legislature or in judicial utterance, there is no limit to the number and diversity of ways in which man will seek to benefit his fellow men†. The Preamble to the Charitable Uses Act 1601, also referred to as the Statute of Elizabeth I, contained a list of purposes which were then regarded as charitable. It assumed a central role for the courts as a reference point or catalogue of accepted instances of charity until almost 300 years later when Lord MacNaughten in the Pemsel case, famously classified charitable objects into four principal divisions: (i) trusts for the relief of poverty, (ii) trusts for the advancement of education, (iii) trusts for the advancement of religion, (iv) trusts beneficial to the community not falling under any of the preceding heads. We will write a custom essay sample on Charities or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page These four heads of charity were used as reference whenever the inherent charitable nature of a purpose or institution was questioned until the Charities Act 2006 received royal assent. Section 2(2) of the 2006 Act now provides a modern statutory definition of charity by listing 13 descriptions of purposes deemed charitable at law. In order to be charitable, an organisation has to be established for one or more purposes within the descriptions recognised by the law as capable of being charitable, and for the public benefit. Charity law in England and Wales has developed within the context of the traditional monotheistic religions but it has embraced for many years religions other than Christianity and Judaism. In Bowman[3], Lord Parker effectively held that it was not just the promotion of Christianity that would be recognised but that the Courts of this country were not precluded â€Å"from giving effect to trusts for the purposes of religions which, however sacred they may be to millions of His Majestys subjects, either deny the truth of Christianity or, at any rate, do not accept some of its fundamental doctrines†. Furthermore in the Commission’s Scientology[4] decision it was firmly established that â€Å"The law does not prefer one religion to another and as between religions the law stands neutral†[5]. The English courts have, for a long time, resisted closely defining what makes some belief systems religious and others not. However in the Scientology case, the Commissioners accepted that there are various characteristics of religion which can be discerned from the legal authorities: †¢ Belief in a god or a deity or supreme being – R v Registrar General[6] †¢ Two of the essential attributes of religion are faith and worship: faith in a god and worship of that god South Place Ethical Society[7] †¢ To advance religion means â€Å"to promote it, to spread the message ever wider among mankind; to take some positive steps to sustain and increase religious belief and these things are done in a variety of ways which may be comprehensively described as pastoral and missionary†. United Grand Lodge v Holborn BC[8]. Having considered these characteristics, the Commissioners concluded that the definition of a religion in English charity law was characterised by a belief in a supreme being and an expression of that belief through worship. This definition is further refined in the 2006 Act where s2 (3) a gives a partial definition of the word religion. However, the law does not automatically recognise as a religion everything that may designate itself as a religion and there are some principles to which a purpose must conform if it is to be regarded as within the Charities Act’s description of ‘the advancement of religion’. These general principles are gathered from the common law of England and Wales but also take into account the body of law which has developed concerning the European Convention right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. As a general proposition, for its advancement to be capable of being charitable in this context, a religion should have a certain level of cogency, seriousness, coherence and importance[9]. Also, in order to be charitable for the advancement of religion, the content of any system of faith and worship has to be of a positive nature, impacting beneficially on the community. Sir John Wickens, V-C. in Cocks v Manners[10] observed: â€Å"It is said, in some of the cases, that religious purposes are charitable, but that can only be true as to religious services tending directly or indirectly towards the instruction or the edification of the public†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Hence, to be charitable a religious purpose has to be serious, tend directly or indirectly to the moral and spiritual improvement of the public as well as being for the public benefit. In Holmes v Attorney General[11] Walton J commented: â€Å"†¦ It is not for the benefit of the adherents of the religion themselves that the law confers charitable status, it is in the interests of the public. † Hence, as a general proposition, in the case of charities for the advancement of religion the purpose must not simply be for the benefit of the followers of the particular religion. Formerly, the proposition stated that â€Å"as between different religions the law stands neutral, but it assumes that any religion is at least likely to be better than none†[12]. Plowman J in Re Watson[13] considered a case for the publication and distribution of the fundamentalist Christian writings of an individual where he quoted authority that the court does not prefer one religion or sect to another and said that where the purposes in question are of a religious nature then the court assumes a public benefit unless the contrary is shown†. He then went on to say that the only way of disproving a public benefit is to show that the doctrines inculcated are adverse to the very foundations of all religion, and that they are subversive of all morality. However, that part of the judgment being inconsistent with the judgment of the court of appeal and opinions given by the House of Lords in Gilmour v Coats, where it was held: â€Å"†¦the question whether a trust is beneficial to the public is an entirely different one from the question whether a trust is for the advancement of religion†, it is not regarded a binding. Since the Charities Act 2006, there is no longer any presumption that, because a purpose falls within the description â€Å"the advancement of religion†, it is for the public benefit. Section 3(2) of the Act provides: â€Å"In determining whether [the public benefit] requirement is satisfied in relation to any †¦purpose, it is not to be presumed that a purpose of a particular description is for the public benefit†. Hence, with the removal of the presumption and in the modern context the proposition may now be interpreted as meaning that advancing religion can be seen as a public good if such advancement can be demonstrated to be in relation to a system having a benign and positive content which is being advanced for the benefit of the public. Over the years, there are some purposes which, despite being beneficial and religious and indeed seriously religious, did not fall within the legal framework. For example, fostering private piety, although being a religious activity, is not a charitable purpose due to the absence of benefit to the public. In Cocks v Manners[14] (supra) it was said that â€Å"a voluntary association of women for the purpose of working out their own salvation by religious exercises and self-denial seems to have none of the requisites of a charitable institution. † In the Re Joy[15] case it was held that the real object contemplated by the testator was the non-charitable purpose of improvement of the membership of a society by prayer. Further, in Re White[16], it was held that â€Å"a society for the promotion of private prayer and devotions by its own members and which has no wider scope, no public element, and no purpose of general utility would not be charitable†. Lord Simonds in the Gilmour[17] case later confirmed the decision in Cocks v Manners and said that activities â€Å"good in themselves but solely designed to benefit individuals associated for the purpose of securing that benefit, which may not have some repercussions or consequential effects beneficial to some section of the general community† do not meet the prerequisites of a charitable institution. In Re Warre’s Will Trusts, on the matter of a retreat house, Harman J said: â€Å"Activities which do not in any way affect the public or any section of it are not charitable. Pious contemplation and prayer are, no doubt, good for the soul, and may be of benefit by some intercessory process, of which the law takes no notice, but they are not charitable activities. † Thus, in Re Hetherington[18] it was held that the celebration of a religious rite in private does not contain the necessary element of public benefit since any benefit of prayer or example is incapable of proof in the legal sense and any element of spiritual or moral improvement (edification) is limited to a private not public class of those present at the celebration. However, in the same case it was also held that the holding of a religious service which is open to the public is capable of conferring a â€Å"sufficient public benefit because of the edifying and improving effect of such celebration on the members of the public who attend. † There are also other purposes related to religion whose pursuits have not been considered as charitable because the purpose itself is not exclusively charitable. For example a trust ‘for Roman Catholic purposes’ may not be for exclusively charitable purposes furthering the Roman Catholic faith[19]. Also a gift to an Anglican vicar of a parish â€Å"for parochial institutions or purpose†Ã¢â‚¬â„¢[20] was not considered charitable. A bequest to an archbishop to be applied â€Å"in any manner he might think best for helping to carry on the work of the Church in Wales†[21] is not charitable either and neither is a generally stated purpose â€Å"for religious, educational and other parochial requirements†[22]. On the other hand, In Re Schoales[23], it was clarified that there is no distinction, from the point of view of validity as a gift for charitable purposes, between a gift to the Church of England and a gift to another Church. A gift for the general purposes of a particular church or denomination or faith community falls are considered in law as a gift which has to be applied only for such of its purposes as are for the advancement of religion for the public benefit, and hence charitable. As mentioned above, charitable purposes require some promotion or advancement that is to â€Å"spread its message ever wider among mankind; to take some positive steps to sustain and increase religious belief†[24]. Proselytising is one way of advancing religious purposes[25] but it may raise public benefit issues if it breaks the law or results in harm or detriment. Therefore, it would not be compatible with public benefit principles for an organisation to seek to inhibit anyone from their rights of freedom of thought, conscience or religion (Article 9 ECHR) and to manifest or change such beliefs. This matter was considered in Kokkinakis v Greece[26] and the court in considering attempts to forbid activities of a Jehovah’s Witness confirmed that a democratic society has a plurality of beliefs and held that freedom to manifest one’s religion includes the right to convince one’s neighbor. But, the court drew a clear distinction between bearing Christian witness and improper proselytism by stating that the former was true evangelism and the latter representing a corruption or deformation of it. Furthermore, proselytising being unlawful in some countries, the Commission dealt with the issue of whether it was possible to recognise a religious purpose as charitable in England and Wales which is not charitable and may be illegal abroad in its annual report in 1993 which mentioned: â€Å"One should first consider whether they would be regarded as charities if their operations are confined to the United Kingdom. If they would, then they should be presumed also to be charitable even though operating abroad unless it would be contrary to public policy to recognise them. Hence, an organisation whose purpose is to proselytize, even if its activity is carried out internationally, may be charitable in England and Wales unless it causes harm or detriment which outweighs the public benefit. The High Court considered the statement in the Sonsino case[27] in 2002 and upheld it. However, it still remains unclear as to what the courts would rule contrary to public policy. Another way of advancing a religion would be by means of undertaking pastoral work. However, where a charity is operating solely for the purpose of advancement of religion, then any secular pastoral work which it undertakes should be as a means of advancing the particular religion. A convent in Cocks v Manners[28] was held charitable and there the nuns were engaged in exterior works (teaching the ignorant and nursing the sick) as part of their religious work. In the United Grand Lodge[29] case, Donovan J said that taking positive steps to sustain and increase religious beliefs was something done â€Å"in a variety of ways which can be comprehensively described as pastoral and missionary†. More recently, the Pilsdon Community House, a religious community living according to Christian principles and giving practical help in cases of drug addiction, drink, having been in prison or loneliness was considered in Re Banfield[30]. The court held that the fact that a religious community makes its services available to those of all creeds and of none does not prevent it being a charity for the advancement of religion also that furthering the purposes of the community amounted to the advancement of religion.

Saturday, November 30, 2019

Logistics costs free essay sample

Logistics cost form an important part of the overall cost structure in any organization. Focus needs to be on renegotiating freight and shipping rates, reduction in overall freight costs and streamlining operations. The following are the measures (ways) that can be used to reduce cost in logistics New carriers: The use of Constant market rate check is a best practice. Usually, logistics managers get into a comfort zone with the existing carriers. The organization should look on other carriers which offers lowest cost of transportation. Market rate check will bring to light other more economical operations. New carriers may be more flexible in their price. Freight costs: There are several options to optimize freight costs. Renegotiation of minimum billing to a minimum for a zone needs to be explored. Product delivery coordination is another useful tool to streamline freight costs. Arrangements with a number of smaller carriers also provide the best rate/best service combination. We will write a custom essay sample on Logistics costs or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Internet offers excellent tools for comparing and optimizing freight costs. Improve shipping and receiving: Streamlining shipping and receiving practices will offer savings. This can happen through reduction of long time for receiving. Starting point should be mandating delivery appointments. A flow chart needs to be made of all the operations to determine wasteful processes and combining existing processes. Technology: Internet tools enable substantial reduction in paperwork. Documents are scanned and emailed to customs, ports etc. In case of cross border trade, documents needs to reach at least twenty four hours in advance to avoid delays at the border. Technology also allows coordination of all shipments to optimize loading. This minimize delays in delivery. Managing returns: Reverse logistics is an important element of freight costs. Most companies offer a liberal returns policy. If the customer is not satisfied with the product, it can be returned in a certain period depending on the seller. At times, the seller also arranges to pick it up. There should be streamlined processes so as to minimize costs associated with reverse logistics. Audit of freight costs: Use specialized agencies that provide post payment audit of freight bills. These agencies are usually paid on a profit sharing basis. These audits also provide valuable insight into patterns and other cost reduction opportunities. Deborah Catalano Ruriani explained other ways (measures) of Cost reduction as: 1. Eliminate supply chain bottlenecks. By periodically reviewing and analyzing their supply chain networks, companies can be able to pinpoint issues and proactively address them. Strategies to reduce or eliminate bottlenecks include addressing vessel schedule planning, ensuring proper documentation and regulatory compliance for imports and exports, and revamping network design. 2. Reduce inventory at the port, manufacturing sites, and warehouses. Companies often stock excess inventory because they lack supply chain visibility. To effectively reduce excess inventory, you have to gain reliable information on future orders. Visibility software can help. 3. Cut demurrage and detention fines. While an occasional fine may not seem like much, these costs can add up. Auditing carrier bills and tracking where issues occur in the supply chain can substantially cut fine payments. 4. Identify opportunities to shift modes. Without adequate visibility into logistics operations, a company may not realize that an air shipment could move by sea at a much lower cost. Companies that use technology to evaluate modal options typically see a five- to eight-percent cost reduction. 5. Use postponement strategies to divert inventory at an international gateway. A successful postponement strategy can dramatically lower forecasting errors as well as improve customer service by reducing out-of-stocks. Companies also can cut transport costs by reducing inventory misallocations and shipping more items in bulk. 6. Use preferential trade agreements. Companies that take advantage of preferential status can save millions in duties and taxes. A software system that automates the qualification process can save time and effort, as well as improve compliance and data accuracy. 7. Rebalance supply and fulfillment networks by determining tax-efficient sourcing and distribution strategies. Companies must periodically review their supply chain networks to assess duties and logistics costs, labor costs, regulatory controls, and global political climates. By comparing geographic options, taking into account the costs and regulations of each option, companies can optimize their supply chain. 8. Become a self-filer. Using technology to connect electronically with brokers lowers entry filing costs and reduces manual entry errors. It also can enable pre-clearance of goods at borders and reduce the number of staff needed internally to manage logistics operations while boosting productivity hence reduce cost. 9. Contro l your procurement process. By implementing a process-based workflow that includes tracking and managing order acceptance, consolidating invoices, creating shipments and generating documents— and by extending that process to trading partners— companies can reduce cycle times, cut supply chain execution costs, and better support compliance initiatives. 10. Implement performance management metrics and tools. Companies need a system, data, and tools to benchmark actions and make informed decisions. Developing a performance management process allows companies to manage service providers and critical cycle times to lower costs and continually improve performance 11. Understand the true costs of sourcing overseas. Calculate freight, duty, brokerage, and inventory carrying costs to support these lengthened supply chains. Also factor in such items as the costs of engineers flying overseas. Once you understand the true total landed cost and total impact to the business 12. Focus on eliminating the variability out of transit times. The more variable the transit times are, the more likely it is that the receiving party is using more premium freight, building buffers of inventory, or ordering more often and more quantity than necessary to compensate for the uncertainty. Understanding these dynamics can lead to the conclusion that paying higher freight costs to insure higher variability actually saves your company in total costs. 13. Control your express shipping costs. Typically when a company runs into a supply chain issue, it will have an entire shipment sent on an express/expedited (highest cost) service level basis. Panicking often results in higher costs. If the company would just do a little bit of calculating it can determine the amount of goods that are needed immediately and have that amount sent using express/expedited service level, while the balance of the shipment can be sent using a standard (lower cost) service level. 14. Informed decision-making. Provide to the decision-makers/customers of your logistics network the cost of freight for each service level, the reliability of each lane for each service level, and the true cost of carrying inventory so they can make informed decisions. People generally want to be good corporate citizens and will select the less expensive option that still meets their needs CHARACTERISTICS OF COST REDUCTION (HARD COST SAVINGS) The following are the characteristics of â€Å"Hard† cost savings, which is understood as tangible bottom line reductions are: year-on-year saving over the constant volume of purchased product/service, actions that can be traced directly to the Profit and Loss Account, direct reduction of expense or a change in process/technology/policy that directly reduces expenses, process improvements that result in real and measurable cost or asset reductions, examination of existing products or services, contractual agreements, or processes to determine potential changes that reduce cost, and net reductions in prices paid for items procured when compared to prices in place for the prior 12 months or a change to lower cost alternatives. COST AVOIDANCE (SOFT COST SAVINGS) â€Å"Soft† cost avoidance is much more difficult to define. The following are Suggested definitions, which includes: Cost avoidance is a cost reduction that does not lower the cost of products/services when compared against historical results, but rather minimizes or avoids entirely the negative impact to the bottom line that a price increase would have caused, when there is an increase in output or capacity without increasing resource expenditure, in general, the cost avoidance savings are the amount that would have been spent to handle the increased volume or output, and Cost avoidances include process improvements that do not immediately reduce cost or assets but provide benefits through improved process efficiency, employee productivity, improved customer satisfaction, improved competitiveness, over time to mention the few, cost avoidance often becomes cost savings. N. B: Cost avoidance is a cost reduction that results from a spend that is lower than the spend that would have otherwise been required if the cost avoidance exercise had not been undertaken. This accounts for the situations where spend is higher due to higher demand but overall cost per unit is lower, where up-front investments reduce overall spend in one or more categories over a multi-year initiative, and where a process improvement or product replacement resulted in a lower operating cost or cost per unit compared to what the company would have spent had the company not improved the process or replaced the product. To Sum up, if the organization adopts this open definition of cost avoidance, and maintains a document of common examples and their associated metrics, which is updated each time a new type of project is encountered that could result in a cost avoidance, the organization can fully quantify the â€Å"hard† and â€Å"soft† savings delivered by the sourcing team to the management team. Measures of Cost Avoidance: Resisting or delaying a supplier’s price increase, this is one of the ways of cost avoidance whereby the organization use techniques to resist or delay supplier price increase in avoiding cost. Use of purchase price that is lower than the original quoted price, The organization purchases its requirements at a lower price than what was initially quoted by the supplier so as to avoid cost. Value of additional services at no cost, the firm makes sure it avoid or prevent cost by making sure after sale services are obtained for free for instance installation, free training. Long-term contracts with price-protection provisions,the firm enters into long term contracts with the aim of cost sharing with the supplier. Introduction of a new product or part number requiring a new material purchases and spend is lower. COST REDUCTION CHALLENGES Some of the challenges faced by a company as they seek to assess cost reduction include: Cancellation of net savings due to an increase in the business unit’s cost structure, Supply management’s role in the cost savings allocation decision, Chronology of supply management’s involvement and the need for budget cuts, Visibility, in terms of systems, people, and metrics, Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) concept for purchases items/services, Multi-year issues in cost savings, and Creating a proper incentive structure for supply management personnel. TYPES OF COST REDUCTION AND AVOIDANCE The following are types of cost reduction and avoidance that need to be recognized as valid cost savings. This section presents some types of cost reduction and cost avoidance that can contribute significantly to the organization’s bottom line. Negotiated Discounts against Material Cost Increases If the products being sourced are primarily made from a commodity whose average market price or index has increased significantly since the last sourcing cycle, and a buyer manages to negotiate a price that increases less than the increase in underlying material costs since the last sourcing event, this is a valid cost avoidance. Substitution If a buyer manages to find another product that performs the same function, or is able to collaborate with a supplier to produce a functionally equivalent specification that is more economical to produce, then the buyer has obtained a cost reduction on behalf of the organization.. Waived Fees This form of cost avoidance is quite self-explanatory. For example, if a supplier normally charges an installation fee for a new piece of equipment, but the buyer is able to negotiate free installation, than this would be an example of cost avoidance of the waived fee variety. Another example would be free training or services. However, this is one example where the cost avoidance is not equal to what the vendor quotes, but what the market average for the service is.. Inventory Reduction This occurs when the buyer comes up with a strategy to reduce the inventory that the organization needs to hold at any given time. Since all inventories is associated with a carrying cost, inventory reduction often represents significant cost savings to an organization over time. Inventory can be reduced when a buyer finds a supplier who can handle a shorter lead time or when inventory is turned over to a vendor who specializes in inventory management (Vendor Managed Inventory). Process Improvement Processes consume overhead, and overhead costs money. Thus, any significant process improvement could represent a significant cost avoidance to an organization. However, unlike the other types of cost avoidance, process improvement cost reductions can be a bit tricky to evaluate. The key is to look at the average number of units of product or work produced per day, week, or month prior to the improvement and the number of units of product or work produced per day, week, or month after the improvement and calculate a percentage improvement N. B: By doing this, the organization will have clearly defined cost reduction efforts, tied them to savings, defined their relative importance, and defined the share of the credit that will go to supply management in a cross-functional initiative. The organization will also have avoided the problem where the team over concentrates on finding â€Å"hard† dollar savings, which is a serious problem if raw material and energy costs keep rising significantly and the largest savings potential is in the â€Å"soft† savings realized by long-term process and product improvements. Transloading to Maximize Cost Savings By Deborah Catalano Ruriani Tags: Transportation Management Transloading offers a cost-effective way to bring ocean containers inland to distribution centers. By transferring cargo without sorting the contents for shipment to a single destination, transloading services can reduce total landed costs, and—when combined with value-added services such as palletizing and shrink-wrapping—reduce handling at the destination. Jeff McCorstin, senior vice president of air and ocean products for UPS Global Freight Forwarding, offers these tips for maximizing savings with transloading services. 1. Understand general transloading rules. Transloading offers the greatest cost savings when ocean containers can be consolidated into fewer, larger domestic trailers. The cargo in three 40-foot ocean containers typically fits into two 53-foot domestic trailers. 2. Ensure overall transportation savings outweigh additional handling costs. Sometimes the savings are negated for destinations located farther east from the U. S. West Coast discharge port. 3. Consider palletizing cargo during transloading. To best use space in ocean containers, cargo is rarely palletized at the point of origin. Palletize during the transloading process to improve distribution center (DC) handling efficiency. 4. Factor transloading into transit time estimates. Unloading, handling, and reloading ocean container cargo near the port of discharge takes time. Allow up to three days to ensure customer delivery commitments are met. 5. Ensure your cargo fits the bill. Transload operators charge additional fees for containers with more than a certain number of cartons. The additional costs for containers with several thousand small cartons could offset any transportation savings. 6. Ensure handling flexibility by making Customs entry at the port. While it is a common practice to clear ocean containers at their final inland destinations, it is better to make entry at the port of discharge. This ensures maximum flexibility in handling cargo, and eliminates the need to move the shipment in-bond, saving additional costs. 7. Increase supply chain efficiency with merge-in-transit offerings. This type of deconsolidation allows importers to combine products arriving in containers from different origins/shippers by transloading near the port of arrival into domestic trailers. And if importers source from domestic suppliers—who may also have product arriving via container—this cargo can be merged in transit to arrive together at the designated DC. 8. Use transloading to expedite delivery to final destination. Transloading near the port of discharge provides the flexibility to bypass DCs and speed delivery to the end customer. The reduced DC handling charges and improved time in transit can help trim supply chain costs. 9. Avoid costly containers. Instead of shipping less-than-containerload, 20-foot, or light-loaded 40-foot containers from multiple overseas vendors to your inland DC, ship fully loaded/optimized containers to a single container freight station near the port of discharge. From there, they can be transloaded, merged in transit with other inbound cargo, and shipped to the final destination using the transport mode that best fits the importers needs. 10. Set up transloading programs in advance. Having your service provider involved in coordinating with the origin forwarder translates into better service levels and reliability. Flexible Structure Flexible operations are preplanned contingency strategies to prevent logistical failures. A typical emergency occurs when an assigned shipping facility is out of stock or for some other reason cannot complete a customer’s order. For example, a warehouse may be out of an item with no replenishment inventory scheduled to arrive until after the customer’s specified order delivery date. To prevent back-ordering or delivery cancellation, a contingency operating policy may assign the total order, or at least those items not available, for shipment from an alternative warehouse. The use of flexible operations is typically based on the importance of meeting the needs of a specific customer or the critical nature of the product being ordered. A flexible logistics capability that has gained popularity as a result of improved communications involves procedures for serving predetermined situations as part of the basic logistical strategy. The flexible logistics rule and decision scenarios specify alternative ways to meet specific service requirements, such as assignment of the order to different shipping facilities or changing methods of delivery. A strategy that utilizes flexible operations is common practice in four different situations. First, the customer designated delivery facility might be near a point of equal logistics cost or equal delivery time from two different logistics facilities. Customers located at such points offer the supplying firm an opportunity to fully utilize available inventory and logistical capacity. Orders can be serviced from the facility having the best inventory position or the available transportation capacity to achieve timely delivery. This form of flexible logistics offers a way to fully utilize system capacity by balancing workloads between facilities while protecting customer service commitments. The benefit is operating efficiency, which is transparent to the customer, who experiences no service deterioration. A second situation justifying flexible distribution is when the size of a customer’s order creates an opportunity to improve logistical efficiency if serviced through an alternative channel arrangement. For example, the lowest-total-cost method to provide small shipment delivery may be through a distributor. In contrast, larger shipments may have the lowest total logistical cost when shipped factory direct to customers. Provided that alternative methods of shipment meet customer delivery expectations, total logistical cost may be reduced by implementing flexible policies. A third type of flexible operation may result from a selective inventory stocking strategy. The cost and risk associated with stocking inventory require careful analysis to determine which items and how much to place in each warehouse. With replacement parts, a common strategy mentioned earlier is to stock selected items in specific warehouses with the total line being stocked only at a central facility. In general-merchandise retailing, a store or distribution center located in a small community may stock only a limited or restricted version of a firm’s total line. When customers desire nonstocked items, orders must be satisfied from an alternative facility. The term master facilities is often used to describe inventory strategies that designate larger facilities for backup support of smaller restricted facilities. Selective inventory stocking by echelon level is a common strategy used to reduce overall inventory risk. The reasons for selective stocking range from low product profit contribution to high per-unit cost of inventory maintenance. One way to operationalize a fine-line inventory classification strategy is to differentiate stocking policy by system echelons. In situations following such classified stocking strategies, it may be necessary to obtain advanced customer approval for split-order delivery. However, in some situations firms that use differentiated inventory stocking strategies are able to consolidate customer orders while intransit for same-time delivery, thereby making the arrangement customer transparent. The fourth type of flexible operations results from agreements between firms to move selected shipments outside the established echeloned or direct logistics arrangements. Two special arrangements gaining popularity are flow through cross-docks and service supplier arrangements. A cross-dock operation involves shipments from multiple suppliers arriving at a designated time at the handling facility. Inventory receipts are sorted by destination across the dock and consolidated into outbound trailers for direct delivery. Cross-dock operations are growing in popularity in the retail industry for building store-specific assortments and are common methods of continuous inventory replenishment for mass merchants. Cross-docking of merchandise direct from manufacture to a customer’s retail store eliminates the work and cost associated with utilizing distribution warehouses. Another form of flexible operations is to use integrated service providers to consolidate products for delivery. This is similar to consolidation for transportation purposes discussed in the previous section of this chapter. However, as a form of flexible logistics, specialists are used to avoid storage and handling of slow-moving products through the mainstream of the echeloned logistics structure. Such service providers can also provide important value-added services. For example, Starbucks Coffee Company has a long standing relationship with OHL, a logistics service provider. Starbucks has approximately 17,000 company-owned and licensed retail outlets. OHL provides logistical support to Starbucks by offering the typical range of 3PL services plus technology support. This operating relationship has existed for over a decade. Figure 2. 5 introduces flexibility to the logistical operating structures previously illustrated. A prerequisite to effective flexible operations is the use of information technology to monitor inventory status throughout the logistical network and provide the capability to rapidly switch methods for servicing customer orders. The use of flexible operations in emergency situations has a well-established track record. The overall improvement in information technology is resulting in flexible operations becoming an increasingly important part of basic logistics strategy. Cutting Costs From Your Logistics Budget By Tags: Supply Chain Management If you want to reduce logistics costs, you have to take the time to review your processes. Nathan Pieri, senior vice president of marketing and product management for Rutherford, N. J. -based Management Dynamics, offers these tips for trimming your logistics budget. 10 tips for reducing supply chain logistics costs Aug. 9, 2005 Bernie Hart EMAIL Tweet Comments 0 As companies continue to manufacture and source materials from overseas, controlling costs remains a top priority for those involved in international trade. One key factor that should be monitored more closely is logistics management, which covers all activities relating to the procurement, transport, transshipment and storage of goods. Depending on the industry sector, supply chain logistics costs account from 5% to 50% of a product’s total landed cost. Some issues effecting logistics costs: Fuel prices remain high and ports continue to experience delays, resulting in higher transportation fees. Increasingly complex international trade laws and security measurements threaten to lengthen delivery times and increase warehousing costs. According to a recent report by TechnologyEvaluation. com, a typical air-freight shipment takes eight to twelve days. Of this, the cargo is en route only 5% of the time. The rest is spent sitting in warehouses waiting for the required documents and compliance checks. Following are 10 Tips on Reducing Supply Chain Logistics Costs: 1. , that domestic buy may look a lot better. Sourcing from Ohio to your U. S. plant, distribution center or customer may, in the long run, be more cost effective than sourcing from China. 23. Tariff engineering. Strategically source and manufacture products to take advantage of classification duty rates and eligibility for special trade programs such as NAFTA. 4. Consolidate. If you have multiple suppliers in one country, consolidate their goods into one shipment. In addition, if you always have LCL (less than container load) shipments out of one country, try to find another LCL importer of goods from that country. You may be able to partner and consolidate to a more cost-effective FCL (full container load) shipment. 5.. 6. Sometimes insurance doesn’t pay. Often when a company has a shipment of premium goods they tend to use the Carrier’s Insurance. Carriers Insurance is very expensive. If the company is self insured, which most companies are, they should check their insurance policy to see if it covers shipment of goods. If it does, then they do not need to add the extra cost of Carrier’s Insurance. 7. Automate compliance processes. Companies that implement software solutions to automate trade compliance are able to speed the cycle times associated with tasks being performed manually, such as document preparation, and eliminate the associated errors. Automated compliance procedures also bring fewer delays at border crossings, resulting in on-time delivery, adequate inventory levels, increased customer satisfaction, and the avoidance of fines. 8.. 9. Planes, trains and automobiles. Which is cheapest? In general, rail is more cost-effective than trucking or air. Water is cheaper than air shipment. No matter the mode of delivery, always try to get three quotes for movements. 10. Be aware of non-tariff trade barriers. Companies need to be more aware of the increasing level of non-tariff trade barriers that are in force to reduce sweat shop labor and support human rights and animal welfare issues. These restrictions can bring importers increased liability and compliance costs.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Lady Or The Tiger Essay Essays

Lady Or The Tiger Essay Essays Lady Or The Tiger Essay Paper Lady Or The Tiger Essay Paper The Princesss Jealousy Love or jealousy, which overcomes the other? Can love be so strong that you are willing to make sacrifices for your lover just to keep them alive? Or can jealousy be s o powerful that you are willing to murder your lover? In Frank Stockpots short story, The Lady or the Tiger, he ends the story with a question, leaving the readers to decide which door the p eeriness chose for her lover. The clues given in this story shows that jealousy can overpower love e, which means that the princess chose the door with the tiger. While the princess loved the commoner clearly, she was not able to control h re jealousy and anger. The lady was the fairest and loveliest of the damsels, and she felt t hat her soul would have burned in agony (150) if the lady and the commoner were to have a we adding. She obviously wanted him for herself, and she did not want the lady to interfere in her relationship with her lover. In addition, the Story says, Often she had seen, or imagined SSH e had seen, this fair creature throwing glances of admiration upon the person of her lover, an sometimes she thought these glances were perceived and even returned (149). This meant t hat the princess already believed that the lady and her lover might be having an affair and she could not handle the fact that they could end up getting married. Young 1 Furthermore, due to her selfish and semicircular behavior, it led her to choose e the door with the tiger. She hated the lady, which the story states itself, It was one oft he fairest and loveliest of the damsels of the court who had been selected as the award oft he accused youth, would he be proved innocent of the crime of aspiring to one so far above hi m; and the princess hated her (149). Because she hated the lady, the princess wanted to cause ha arm to her. If killing her lover will harm the lady in any way, I feel that the princess will be willing t o do it because of her semicircular nature. Also, no one can have him besides the princess, hi chi means that she thought the lady was a threat to her and the commoner. Lastly, the princess chose the door with the tiger because she was imperious I eke her father. The story states that the king had a daughter ND with a soul as fever .NET and imperious as his own (147). This meant that she wanted things her way, and she believe d that it was easier to let her lover die. A s the princess questions, Would it not be better for him to die at once, and go to wait for her in the blessed regions of semicircular futurity? The princes s would not have to see the lady With the commoner, and she could wait for him later on in the afterlife. Obviously, the princess chose the door with the tiger despite the fact that she loved him, because she was too selfish and jealous. She mainly did it for herself, so she would not have to see him with the lady, and it would have hurt the damsel in some way. Also, t he princess would have met him in the afterlife, so it is easier than having to deal with seeing hi m alive with Young 2 another woman instead of her. This shows that jealousy indeed can overpower re love. However, is it truly love when you are so jealous that you are not willing to make sacrifices for your own lover? Sacrifices, such as letting them live and watch your lover marry another woman just to make them happy?

Friday, November 22, 2019

#1 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

#1 - Essay Example On the other hand labor relations is the dealings between management and the workers with respect to the employment conditions. â€Å"Most commonly, however, labor relations refer to dealings between management and a workforce that is already unionized, or has the potential to become unionized. Labor relations is thus crucial to industries like autos and airlines with heavily unionized workforces† (Labor Relations, 2009) In most of the times the interests of the organizations and that of the labors would be opposite in direction. The management always keen in maximizing their profit and for that purpose they will compromise the interests of the workers. On the other hand labor unions are always working for the wellbeing of the workers and they are not much concerned about the profit of the organization. For workers what they are getting is more important than what the organization is achieving. Both these interests contradict at times which will end up in strained labor relationships and trade union strikes. In a changing world, especially under globalization and liberalization, a well maintained labor relationship is important for an organization in order to compete in the market. Customers will trust an organization if their product or service supply doesn’t interrupt. Poor labor relationship always results in labor union strikes which will interrupt the production of goods or service. A temporary suspension of service or supply of goods in the market will force the customers to search for other options. Once the customers move away from the organization, it is difficult for the organization to bring them back. Labor problems destroy the image of the organization in the society in which it operates. The public will often take the side of the labors even if the justice is on the other side because of the false assumption that the management always trying to exploit the workers. This public

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Tort law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words - 1

Tort law - Essay Example Whether the Newns department store is liable under the provisions of Occupiers liability Act for the losses suffered by Joanna and Edith. Whether Edith and Cindy are eligible for damages in respect of the nervous shock suffered by them. As such, the issues to be addressed are; first, whether Newns department store is liable for the nervous shock suffered by Edith, due to the charging reindeer. Second, whether this store is liable for the nervous shock suffered by Roland. Third, whether this store is liable for the nervous shock caused to Cindy and Joanna. Edith The Newns department store introduced a real reindeer, in its Santa grotto. This reindeer was aggravated by Paul, which caused it to charge. This resulted in nervous shock to Edith, an elderly patient on a pacemaker, who presumed that the animal was charging at her. Secondary victims have to satisfy certain conditions, in order to succeed in a claim. These are the nature of the relationship between the claimant and the primary victim; the physical proximity of the claimant to the accident; the means of receipt of information by the claimant; and the manner of occurrence of the psychiatric illness.2 In Alcock, some people were killed in the Hillsborough football stadium disaster. The relatives of those who had been killed sought compensation from the police, for psychiatric injury. It was the contention of these claimants that their psychiatric injury was due to the negligence of the police officers. It was maintained by them that the police had failed to manage the crowds. In this case, the police accepted their negligence. The court in McLoughlin v Brian established the limits of emotional ties, physical proximity to the accident site, and the means by which the psychiatric injury had been caused.3 In the Alcock case, the court elaborated upon physical proximity to the accident. It stated that the person who was subjected to the traumatic event was the primary victim. The person who had not been physica lly injured, and was merely a witness to the event, constituted a secondary victim.4 According to the above discussion and case law, the Newns department store cannot evade liability on the basis of the caution notice displayed by it. In addition, it should have foreseen that there was the possibility of some child or customer infuriating the reindeer, and causing the latter to charge. Although, Edith underwent nervous shock, she was a disabled person. Moreover, she survives on a pacemaker. Furthermore, Edith is a secondary victim, who does not satisfy the additional criteria stipulated in Alcock. In addition, no physical injury or accident had transpired. Consequently, Edith is ineligible for a claim under nervous shock. All the same, she can claim damages under the provisions of Occupiers Liability Act 1984 for the pain suffered by her, due to the negligence of the Newns department store. Joanna Thereafter, a 4 year old, Joanna was separated from her mother Cindy, in this departme nt store, and she entered a washing machine, considering it a convenient place to hide and play in. A negligent sales assistant switched this machine on, and Joanna was severely injured. She was rescued by an off duty policeman Roland, who underwent nervous

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Historical essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2

Historical - Essay Example ample, many businesses flourished in the 1920s as subsequent governments adopted the pro-business stance leading to the growth of industries in the manufacturing, aviation, automobile and chemical sectors. In fact, automobile production per year increased threefold, leading to more than 50% of American households owning cars (Foner 610). In my opinion, true American entrepreneurship was born in the 1920s. That is, American entrepreneurship where tenacity, grit, street smarts, education, ambition and opportunity could lead to success on a far wider scale than ever imagined before in a capitalistic system. Many of the entrepreneurs found today have partly modelled their success in accordance to some of the entrepreneurs found in the 1920s. For example, the Prohibition era provided an opportunity for many individuals to become rich. For those who owned establishments such as speakeasies or those responsible for bootlegging, a lot of money was made. The period also witnessed massive rural to urban migration as farmers form the Southern states migrated to cities such as Los Angeles to work in textile and automobile industries, while others found employment opportunities in Hollywood. Indeed, everyone wanted a piece of the American dream (Foner 613). Even though there was far more rampant public corruption in the 1920s as gangs and criminals bribed city officials, the ability to spot an opportunity and utilize it to its maximum, is a trait that is seen today, as companies and multinationals try to exploit every little opportunity for profit. In the 1920s, liquor and prostitution based businesses reaped millions of profits in dollars. However, it was not just illegal business that flourished, even legal ones such as multinationals gained footholds in international markets, marking a shift from Internationalism to Isolationism (Foner 618). The celebrity culture present today also has its roots in the 1920s. As more people began to adopt more lax economic principles,

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Muslim Empires Essay Example for Free

Muslim Empires Essay The Ottoman Turks consisted of Turkic-speaking nomadic people who had spread westward from Central Asia in the ninth, tenth, and eleventh centuries. They were located in the northwestern corner of the peninsula, which allowed them to expand westward and eventually take over empires between the Mediterranean and the Black Seas. The sultan was the supreme authority in both a political and a military sense. Administrative and military power were centralized under the bey, who was only a tribal leader, tribal law was before Muslim law. The Ottoman authorities were Sunni Muslims. The sultan assigned duties to a supreme religious authority, who then maintained a system of schools to educate Muslims. There were some who believed in Sufism or other doctrines, but the government allowed it as long as they were still loyal to the empire. Non-Muslims had to pay a head tax since they were exempt from military service. The Ottoman Empire was divided into four main occupational groups: peasants, artisans, merchants, and pastoral people. Shah Ismail founded the Safavid Dynasty. The Safavids was a mixed society like the Ottoman Empire; majority of the population were Iranian. They used the Shi’ite faith, and Shi’ism was declared the state religion. Like the Ottoman’s sultan, the Safavids had their shahs who would check up on their people. This empire was not as wealthy as the Ottomans and the Mughals. Their greatest area of productivity was in textiles. The founder of the Mughal Dynasty is known as Babur. Ruling of the dynasty was passed down from Babur to his son, Humayun, and then to his grandson, Akbar. As emperor, Akbar didn’t just focus on the views of Muslim but also gave Christian views a chance. He later formed a new type of worship called the Divine Faith, which combined characteristics of different religions. He believed in having a harmonious society, which meant each individual and group would play their assigned role and contribute their part to society. This dynasty was the last of the great traditional Indian dynasties. All three of the empires were Muslim, and they all displayed an impressive capacity to create and run a large empire. The Muslim World was protected by the military and political abilities of these empires. Unlike their European counterparts, these empires continued to thrive.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Internet Marketing Privacy Issues Essay -- Internet Security

If a random person came over to you on the street, would you give him your personal information? Would you allow him to follow and record your activities? Most certainly not. Although this answer may be obvious in the physical world, the general populations’ behavior on the Internet is strikingly different. Websites like Facebook, Twitter, and Google retain vast amounts of personal information of their users. Although this practice benefits the user as well, unrestricted profiling can be quite unnerving. Since regulation from the government may impede Internet use, and unless the threat to internet users privacy are shown to exceed the benefits, the government will not regulate the internet, rather we should educate the public how to be more responsible themselves. The most lucrative business on the Internet is marketing. Companies have come up with ingenious ways to generate revenue with very targeted advertising. Each company has their unique method to identify their consumers, some more complicated than others. For example, on a website geared to new mothers the advertisements would reflect that by advertising for baby diapers or formula. This type of targeted advertising is understood and acceptable. The consumer benefits by having advertisements in their interests and the vendor has a higher likelihood of making a sale. The Internet has introduced novel ways to track consumer habits and interests thereby creating smarter advertising. Microsoft employs their browser Internet Explorer using â€Å"cookies† to track user habits. Cookies are pieces of text stored by a user’s web browser, they are sent back and forth every time a user accesses a web page. These can be tracked to follow web surfers’ actions. Cookies are us ed to store... ...egulation may not be a solution, history has proven that the power to resolve this glowing lack of privacy lies within the hands of the people themselves. The manner in which similar issues were resolved in the past, elucidate on the present. The now famous company Truste created the Web Privacy Seal, the little icon that tells you the website is secure. Ten years ago users were to afraid to buy anything in the internet with their credit cards for fear of identity theft, now one can just look for that seal. As mentioned before Facebook’s privacy changes prompted 2.2 million Facebook members to form a group protesting these changes. Consumers are recognizing the threat to their control and in the same way in the past have come up with ingenious ways to protect themselves they will continue to stand up for their rights that will ultimately affect company policies.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Curse of the Internet Essay

‘The internet is a curse on modern society’ to what extent do you agree with this view? From the mid 1990s when Sir Tim Berners-Lee created the World Wide Web and the Internet grew dramatically, it has progressively dominated our lives. The vast volume of information that is now available to us and the ease at which our ideas and documents can be shared, has transformed the way in which we find material and communicate. It has also had a huge impact on business, particularly retail. However, these huge changes inevitably bring with them some negative consequences, particularly those to do with illegal file sharing and risks to privacy. The Internet is capable of many things but undoubtedly its main purpose is to provide the world with unlimited information. Rather than look something up in a book, today many people just ‘Google’ it, a phrase that was coined because of the dominance of Google as the world’s leading search engine. The vast amount of material on the Internet has helped people expand their knowledge and has also enabled anyone to post their opinions to the world via sites such as Blogger. Due to the sheer quantity of information we are now all spoilt for choice. What goes in a playlist when all the music ever recorded is one click away? How do you choose a book from the millions that you can discover with a Google Books search? Not only is it all difficult to choose from, we also have to question its accuracy. Anyone with Internet access can upload false information and there is rarely any kind of reviewing process. It is almost second nature to doubt an Internet source. However, th e Internet is a medium by which well known institutes and organizations publish their documents for the widest range of people and the presence of forums allows all information to be publically reviewed, presenting new arguments that one might have not considered oneself. As long as people are vigilant about their sources, in terms of information access, the web must surely be considered a positive. The ease that people can find a vast range of material is far more time efficient and allows people to be much better informed. One of the biggest impacts Internet has had on modern society has been communication. Communication has been improved by the introduction of social networks such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. Facebook has approximately a billion users. This fact alone emphasises the importance that social networks have had on global communication. The most significant impact the Internet has had is the idea of sending emails and chatting. In the pre-information technology days, a document often required re-typing on the typewriter before the final version. Sending the letter across to someone else required a visit to the post office or letter box and a postage stamp. People are now able to send emails and chat messages with one click. However, some have argued that this increase in online communication has reduced the amount of time that people spend actually talking to each other face to face or on the phone. Also, especially given the introduction of Internet on phones, people are constantly checking their phone and this disrupts proper conversations. Anyone is able to post onto the Internet and as a consequence, in recent years the Internet has faced problems with confidentiality. Google and Facebook have been accused many times of breaching privacy laws and have access to all your searches and Facebook messages. Google is the one most under threat. Both the European Commission and America’s Federal Trade Commission have been investigating allegations that it has unfairly manipulated its search results to favour its own services. The company also stands accused of several other transgressions, including using patents to prevent competition in the smartphone market. It is not only the average Facebook user that has been affected, Governments have also experienced difficulties surrounding privacy on the Internet. The website WikiLeaks has been in the news in recent years as it has leaked confidential government information to newspapers and has posted the information onto their site. The founder of WikiLeaks, Julian Assange, has faced many charges. The Internet was not created for profit but due to the success of the Internet and the influence it has had on modern society, search engines such as Google and Internet Explorer have now been able to use advertising as a source of income. After advertising, online retail developed through companies such as Amazon and eBay and increased global retailing. These  online sales have had a huge influence on economies, for example ‘in 2006 the USA brought in $170 billion through online retail’ (BBC News) and in 2011 recorded figures of $256 billion. The Internet is estimated to be worth around $2.5 Trillion in 2020 and will continue to grow. The web has had a significant effect on the music industry. The majority of records are bought online, ‘the company Apple have 425 million people using their iTunes Store’ (BBC News) The Internet has caused a transformation in the music industry and has provided artists with more exposure. However, it has also caused the inc rease of illegal downloads such as Limewire and Frostwire. The internet has been a revolutionary technology, and the speed by which it has transformed business is remarkable but after just a single decade of commercialisation, it is unlikely yet to have fully realised its full potential. Now almost every company has a website as ‘Few big businesses can afford not to have an internet site to advertise and sell their wares’ (BBC News) Online businesses have expanded economies and over the years have been beneficial towards society. However, due to the dramatic increase of online retailing, the concern over the possible downfall of the high street shop has been raised, if online retail continues to grow will we see less shops on our streets? The Internet undoubtedly dominates the modern world and the access we now have to information and communication technology has allowed the Internet to move society forward and is beneficial. The Internet is in no way perfect and there are clear problems that need addressing but we must consider that it is relatively new to society and that it will improve in time and that maybe we have not realised its full potential. It has helped economies to flourish. It has allowed people to become more connected to each other, and holds exciting prospects for the future. References -http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21567355-concern-about-clout-internet-giants-growing-antitrust-watchdogs-should-tread -http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/5235332.stm (2010) -http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/6207343/Ways-the-web-has-changed-the-world.html Bibliography -The Wealth of Networks by Yochai Benkler -The future of the Internet, and how to stop it by Jonathan Zittrain ( http://futureoftheinternet.org/ -The Net Delusion by Evgeny Morozov

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Green Marketing Strategy of Businesses

Green marketing has been an important academic research topic since it came about (Coddington, 1993; Fuller, 1999; Ottman, 1994). Attention was drawn to the subject in the late 1970’s when the American Marketing Association organized the first ever workshop on ‘Ecological Marketing’ in 1975 which resulted in the first book on the subject, entitled, ‘Ecological Marketing’ by Henion and Kinnear in 1976. The first definition of ‘green marketing’ was according to Henion (1976); â€Å"the implementation of marketing programs directed at the environmentally conscious market segment† (Banerjee, 1999, p. 8). Peattie and Crane (2005) claims that despite the early development, it was only in the late 1980’s that the idea of green marketing actually made an appearance, because of the consumers’ growing interest in green products, increased awareness and willingness to pay for green features. Henion’s (1976) definition of green marketing has evolving and many more definitions of green marketing have arisen throughout the years. One of the latter definitions is Fuller’s (1999, p. ): The process of planning, implementing, and controlling the development, pricing, promotion, and distribution of products in a manner that satisfies the following three criteria: (1) customer needs are met, (2) organizational goals are attained, and (3) the process is compatible with ecosystems. The first indication of consumer interest in green products came through Vandermerwe and Oliff? s (1990) survey. This stated that more than 92% of European multinationals claimed to have changed their products in response to green concerns and 85% claimed to have changed their product systems (Peattie & Crane, 2005). Green product introductions increased by more than double to 11. 4% of all new household products in the USA between 1989 and 1990, and continued to rise to 13. 4% in 1991 (ibid. ). However, this optimistic start to the 1990’s was not sustained (Peattie & Crane, 2005. A report conducted by Mintel in 1995, showed only a very slight increase in green consumers since 1990, and showed a significant gap between concern and actual purchasing (ibid. ). This can be attributed to the fact that consumers do not want to compromise on price, quality or convenience when conducting a ‘green’ purchase (D?  Souza et al. , 2006). The frequency and prominence of green claims was also found to be in decline (Peattie & Crane, 2005). So instead of the â€Å"green revolution† in marketing forecasted for the 1990s, companies became more cautious about launching environmentally-based communications campaigns for fear of being accused of â€Å"greenwashing† (ibid). This is when a company hides the true effect of its products or actions on the environment, by making it seem as though the company is very concerned about the environment (Greenwashing, 2009). One challenge green marketers — old and new — are likely to face as green products and messages become more common is confusion in the marketplace. â€Å"Consumers do not really understand a lot about these issues, and there's a lot of confusion out there,† says Jacquelyn Ottman (founder of J. Ottman Consulting and author of â€Å"Green Marketing: Opportunity for Innovation†). Marketers sometimes take advantage of this confusion, and purposely make false or exaggerated â€Å"green† claims. Critics refer to this practice as â€Å"green washing†. Even though this revolution did not occur as predicted, the interest in the topic has not died down. Grant (2007, pp. 20-24) claims that green marketing is at a tipping point and that what we do next will decide if the topic continues to develop and gain momentum. The popularity of such marketing approach and its effectiveness is hotly debated. Supporters claim that environmental appeals are actually growing in number–the Energy Star label, for example, now appears on 11,000 different companies' models in 38 product categories, from washing machines and light bulbs to skyscrapers and homes. However, despite the growth in the number of green products, green marketing is on the decline as the primary sales pitch for products. On the other hand, Roper’s Green Gauge shows that a high percentage of consumers (42%) feel that environmental products don’t work as well as conventional ones. This is an unfortunate legacy from the 1970’s when showerheads sputtered and natural detergents left clothes dingy. Given the choice, all but the greenest of customers will reach for synthetic detergents over the premium-priced, proverbial â€Å"Happy Planet† any day, including Earth Day. New reports however show a growing trend towards green products.   This provides information regarding the setting of the study and/or general information about preview of the topic. The term Green Marketing came into prominence in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The American Marketing Association (AMA) held the first workshop on â€Å"Ecological Marketing† in 1975. The proceedings of this workshop resulted in one of the first books on green marketing entitled â€Å"Ecological Marketing†. The first wave of Green Marketing occurred in the 1980s. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Reports started with the ice cream seller Ben & Jerry's where the financial report was supplemented by a greater view on the company's environmental impact. In 1987 a document prepared by the World Commission on Environment and Development defined sustainable development as meeting â€Å"the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own need†, this became known as the Brundtland Report and was another step towards widespread thinking on sustainability in everyday activity. Two tangible milestones for wave 1 of green marketing came in the form of published books, both of which were called Green Marketing. They were by Ken Peattie (1992) in the United Kingdom and by Jacquelyn Ottman (1993) in the United States of America. According to Jacquelyn Ottman, (author of Green Marketing: Opportunity for Innovation) from an organizational standpoint, environmental considerations should be integrated into all aspects of marketing— new product development and communications and all points in between. The holistichttp://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Holistic nature of green also suggests that besides suppliers and retailers new stakeholders be enlisted, including educators, members of the community, regulators, and NGOs. Environmental issues should be balanced with primary customer needs. The past decade has shown that harnessing consumer power to effect positive environmental change is far easier said than done. The so-called â€Å"green consumer† movements in the U. S. and other countries have struggled to reach critical mass and to remain in the forefront of shoppers' minds. While public opinion polls taken since the late 1980s have shown consistently that a significant percentage of consumers in the U. S. and elsewhere profess a strong willingness to favor environmentally conscious products and companies, consumers' efforts to do so in real life have remained sketchy at best. One of green marketing's challenges is the lack of standards or public consensus about what constitutes â€Å"green,† according to Joel Makower, a writer on green marketing. In essence, there is no definition of â€Å"how good is good enough† when it comes to a product or company making green marketing claims. This lack of consensus—by consumers, marketers, activists, regulators, and influential people—has slowed the growth of green products, says Makower, because companies are often reluctant to promote their green attributes, and consumers are often skeptical about claims. Despite these challenges, green marketing has continued to gain adherents, particularly in light of growing global concern about climate change. This concern has led more companies to advertise their commitment to reduce their climate impacts, and the effect this is having on their products and services. This provides the concise description of the issues that need to be addressed. It also provide why these variables are important so it focus on it. The ongoing marketing paradigm, according to Peattie (1999, p. 57), is based on using the earth’s resources and systems in an unsustainable manner. The traditional view on corporate social responsibility, which argues that corporation manager’s and director’s only responsibilities are to the â€Å"owners† of the firm and to maximize profit, started changing in the early nineties to include a responsibility not only to those with a vested interest in the corporation (Klonoski, 1991). Instead a company must consider the effect of its actions on all stakeholders, including nature and animals (ibid. ). Many of the serious environmental issues we face are due to modern development and the pursuit of econoy Peattie, 1999, p. 58). However, making these crucial changes occur requires more than individual change; change on a societal and economic level will be necessary (Grant, 2007, p. 47; Hartmann & Ibanez, 2006). Hence, governments will need to commit to developing forward thinking environmental policies (Peattie, 1999; Grant, 2008). Corporations must integrate greening into their business strategy and invest in the development of it as they would any other aspect of their business (Polonski & Rosenberger, 2001). Finally, the consumers have to actually purchase the environmentally friendly products they, so far, only claim to be interested in (Ginsberg & Bloom, 2004). In the end though, going green needs to make business sense for the corporation and not require a compromise on product attributes for the consumer. Marketers have a tremendous potential to help make this shift happen by pushing organizations to implement some form of a green marketing strategy (Peattie & Crane, 2005; Grant, 2007, p. 32). Marketers have the power to help „sell? new lifestyle ideas (Grant, 2007, p. 1) According to Ottman (1993) green marketing serves two key objectives: 1) To develop products that incorporate consumers? eeds for convenience, affordable pricing and performance while having a minimal impact on the environment. 2) To project an image of high quality, including environmental aspects, both in regards to product attributes and the manufacturer’s track record for environmental compliance. If a paradigm shift from conventional to green marketing occurs, corporations will need to incorporate sustainability into their strategies or risk being left behind (Grant, 2008). It will be important for organizations and marketers to be well-versed on the subject and have a thorough understanding of green marketing and how it can create value. Since the mid-nineties environmental legislation has increased, leading to a higher level of awareness of environmental issues in the business community and many corporations being required to consider these issues in their strategic planning in order to meet stricter environmental standards (Banerjee, 1999, p. 18; Olson, 2008). Regardless of legislation and standards many people are calling for corporations in general to take more responsibility for their actions and the consequences thereof. Green marketing concept is fairly young and as a consequence it has not been extensively explored or research yet (Grant, 2007, p. ; Hartmann & Ibanez, 2006; Baker & Sinkula, 2005). Olson (2008) claims that while many corporations have implemented some form of green initiative, very few have actually established an enterprise-level green strategy. He furthers states that, while it may vary depending on industry and possibly by individual business, early adoption of a formalized and well-articulated green strategy can allow companies the opportunity of a competitive advantage. Considering Olson’s statement, one wonders how corporations, that have indeed incorporated some form of green thinking into the business, have done so and for what reasons. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the subject of strategic green marketing by examining how strategic green marketing can be developed and what incentives companies have to do so. In order to fulfill this purpose, four research questions were developed. One objective of a marketing strategy is to optimize the marketing mix in relation to the wants and needs of the target market (Fuller, 1999, p. 330). Data from the targeted business consumers can provide valuable input for the decision making process (ibid. . 320). Fuller (1999, p. 330) further states that mass-undifferentiated marketing will often fail to ensure customer satisfaction and profit and that segmenting the market provides a more realistic market interpretation. The first research question is therefore: RQ1: How do companies segment their market based on business consumers’ green tendencies? Polonsky and Rosenberger (2001, p. 22) claim that â€Å"in true green marketing, environmental issues become an overriding strategic corporate focus rather than simply one strategic action†. When forming a green marketing strategy it is important to realize that, just as in conventional marketing, there is no single strategy that will work for all companies (Ginsberg & Bloom, 2004; Fuller, 1999, p. 330). Instead each company must examine what strategy will work best depending on its own individual objectives, resources, target market, competitive conditions and so on (Polonsky & Rosenberger, 2001). According to Olson (2008), many companies pass up significant benefits because they do not look at green opportunities in a strategic context. This brings us to research question two: RQ2: How do companies choose their green marketing strategy? Implementing a green marketing strategy requires a fundamental, holistic, integrated approach across all functional marketing areas, including the entire marketing mix of targeting, pricing, design, positioning and promotion (Polonsky & Rosenberger, 2001). According to Fuller (1999, p. 109), only companies that are truly committed to environmental concerns and are willing to translate those concerns into action through marketing mix decisions can develop viable green marketing strategies. Due to these facts, research question three was developed: RQ3: How do companies’ choices of green marketing strategy influence their marketing mix? Authors such as Porter and van der Linde (1995) and Elkington (1994) argue that environmentally superior strategies exist, which can create a competitive advantage by stimulating innovation and tapping into consumer concerns. Fuller (1999, p. 39) states that worldwide corporate practices suggest that a competitive advantage can indeed be earned and companies not implementing a green marketing strategy will be viewed as uncompetitive, unresponsive, and out of touch with emerging global markets. However, others argue that greening strategy is difficult to do in practice (Walley & Whitehead, 1994). Managers need strategies that transform environmental investments into sources of competitive advantage by optimizing the economic return on their investments (Orsato, 2006). This lead to the fourth, and final, research question: RQ4: How do companies obtain a competitive advantage through their green marketing? The obvious assumption of green marketing is that potential consumers will view product or service's â€Å"greenness† as a benefit and base their buying decision accordingly. The not-so-obvious assumption of green marketing is that consumers will be willing to pay more for green products than they would for a less-green comparable alternative product – an assumption that, in my opinion, has not been proven conclusively. This green marketing approach is largely used as a gimmick by the gigantic corporate houses in order to make a difference in the consumer’s point of view when it comes to major market decisions. Many firms are beginning to realize that they are members of the wider community and therefore must behave in an environmentally responsible fashion. So green marketing is also a way of looking at how marketing activities can make the best use of these limited resources while meeting corporate objectives. Thus an environmental committed organization may not only produce goods that have reduced their detrimental impact on the environment, they may also be able to pressure their suppliers to behave in a more environmentally â€Å"responsible† fashion. Final consumers and industrial buyers also have the ability to pressure organizations to integrate the environment into their corporate culture and thus ensure all organizations minimize the detrimental environmental impact of their activities. With the human wants escalating heavily, the resources are decreasing. Hence it has become mandatory for the marketers across the globe to use the resources efficiently and not waste them under any circumstances. Worldwide surveys indicate that consumers globally are changing their behavior towards products and services. Green marketing is almost inevitable as the market for socially responsible products is increasing greatly. This provides what the study covers and fix its boundaries. Limitations specify certain constraints in the study which are essential, but which the researcher has no control of. Although the business-to-consumer (B2C) segment is a major contributor to the damage of the global environment and that a significant change in attitude is necessary, this thesis will only focus on the business-to-business (B2B) segment. The study is not limited to one industry but is examining a range of B2B firms with the purpose of gaining a deeper understanding of green marketing strategies in an overall business context. Most research conducted on the topic of green marketing is focused on the B2C market and the author’s consider there to be a significant lack of knowledge available when it comes to the B2B market. Furthermore, the authors? were intrigued by the apparent opportunities available to companies choosing to go green.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Supriya Panjiyar et al. Essays - Family, Family Law, Free Essays

Supriya Panjiyar et al. Essays - Family, Family Law, Free Essays Supriya Panjiyar et al. Professor Hernandez English 1302 4/8/17 "Paternity and Maternity leave": Gender role beliefs Are only mothers obliged to stay at home after giving birth to a child and take care of her newborn? Or should the father take care of his newborn as well? The six month period after a child is born is the most crucial time for forming a born with the child and family. The same amount of six month is the time the mother recovers from the child birth. The bond that a family creates during those six months is what that makes the family stronger. The value of receiving care from both parents while the child grows up is what makes the difference in how the child has been raised and how the child perceives their own life. Like maternity leave paternity leave is the time father takes time off from their work. According to Oxford English Dictionary Paternity leave is, " a short period of authorized absence from employment granted to a father after or shortly before the birth of his child". We live in a culture that hands child care mostly to the women. Historically, women are always the one who takes care of the newborn along with the help of their mother in law, sisters, friends or neighbours while fathers are always taken as the one who earns money and takes care of the family needs. But since everything in our world is becoming more modern the idea of paternity leave is slowly coming to light. Paid paternity leave should be given as much priority as paid maternity leave since involvement of fathers are as crucial in a child's life. The father should be able to take time off of his work and be paid for so that he can still help and support his family. Some might oppose that taking too much time off after the birth of a child might take away their opportunities in workplace. That might hinder the relationship between him and his family.

Monday, November 4, 2019

Case study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 55

Case study - Essay Example In addition, active care will mean routine patient evaluation of circulatory status with exercise and at rest. From the active multidisciplinary approach, Mr. P will reduce hospitalization incidents that result to increased hospital costs that have ended up depressing his wife. Since Mr. P demonstrates some degree of clinical instability, further medical therapy is required following evidence-based guidelines. Through active care clinic visits, Mr. P’s condition is manageable through the use of antidiuretics and fluid sodium restrictions with the therapeutically intention of treating edema and restoration of extracellular fluid compartment to normal (Cooper, 2011, p. 21). Proper management of Mr. P’s edema will contribute greatly in eliminating shortness of breath or labored breathing. In addition, the use of antidiuretics will promote Mr. P’s response to drugs like ACE inhibitors and beta blockers that are approved for managing patients with cardiomyopathy that results to systolic dysfunction of the heart’s left ventricle. However, patients demonstrating intolerance to ACE drugs require additional Isosorbide dinitrate and Hydralazine hydrochloride or Angiotensin II receptor blockade (Costantini, Boyd, Huck, Carlson, & Buchers, 2001, p. 178) Daily weight checks are essential in ensuring that the Mr. P does not have any weight changes due to fluid retention which is also reflected in shortness of breath and moist crackles on lungs. The best way to identify weight gain will be to know Mr. P’s dry weight or weight taken in the absence of edema. Mr. P will be trained on how to calculate his weight gain by subtracting his presently measured weight from the dry weight. (Costantini, Boyd, Huck, Carlson, & Buchers, 2001). Since he is managing edema, the resulting difference is expected to decrease with the right patient compliance. For both Mr. P

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Negoiation in Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Negoiation in Management - Essay Example In the third scenario, assuming the stores stay closed for the first week before negotiation and then ought to alternate, a single store will incur a profit of sixty thousand after the entire period and other will lose twenty thousand with the city gaining none as levied fine. In the fourth scenario, when the store are all closed in the first week and stay closed for the remaining weeks, they will all profit one hundred and twenty thousand after the entire period, and the city will gain four hundred and eighty thousand as fine. Therefore, for the store to maximize the profits I will go for the first and the fourth scenario. When the store remains closed, the current profit will be kept and the city will gain profit in case the other store remains open before the negotiation. Therefore, when the two stores remain closed, profits will be recorded. The ultimate option will be for the store to demonstrate against the city claiming they will generate two hundred percent increase in revenue (Kim,

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Earth Science Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Earth Science - Essay Example Catastrophism ultimately takes a ratchet approach and explains off much of the current formation of our geologic world through a series of sudden events which shaped our modern world. According to James (2001) the origins of this theory are largely based on the writings of Immanuel Velikovsky who postulated that many ancient myths could ultimately be attributed to a near collision between Venus and Earth. Whilst this represents a pseudo-science approach it could be further argued that Catastrophism does not have any universal guiding principles and catastrophist theories can run a wide range from impact events shaping our current biological makeup right through to the theories of Velikovsky. In terms of estimating the age of the earth, effectively people who subscribe to Catastrophism theories believe that much of the Earths development came in cycles and if one can trace back all of these cycles back to their origin they they can estimate the age of the earth (Though estimates vary widely). In contrast to Catastrophism is Uniformitarianism which postulates that most of the natural laws of science that play on our earth now, also applied since its origins. Meaning that the development of the earth has been a slow and gradual process, which is often compared to the erosion. In terms of the age of the earth, estimations can vary widely insofar as again there is no commonly universally held principles earth development. According to Tarbuck and Lutgens (2011) it is the case that both principles are not to be taken literally however it is the case that Uniformitarianism is more widely accepted amongst the geologic community today. James, B (2001) Catastrophist Theories of Life Gaining Ground It Came From Outer Space.. The New York Times [online] Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2001/08/23/style/23iht-sncat_ed3_.html Accessed on August 25th